When you read about analytic psychology,
Carl Jung's name is always associated with it.
The term 'psychoanalyst' is currently
used to cover all those facts and theories presented in the works
of Freud, Jung, and Adler. However it is often recommended that
it should be applied only to the theory and practice of Freud
and his disciples, and that the theory and practice of Jung should
be designated 'Analytical Psychology', and that the theory and
practice of Adler should be designated 'Individual Psychology'.
' Psychoanalysis' in this broader
sense covers both a set of theories and a set of practices. Analytic
psychology is the analysis of the human mind,
psyche and the unconscious, as well as the conscious components
of the mind. It is thought that man's behavior and his conscious
states can be explained only by unconscious sources of motivation.
What is common in the practice of the psychoanalytic schools is
the use of special techniques for bringing these unconscious factors
into light. The practice of psychoanalysis has grown out of the
treatment of mental illness.
In one sense, the practice of psychoanalysis
is prior to the theories, since the theories first were developed
from experiences from therapeutic practice. These theories have,
however, been extended and enriched by material derived from other
Jung believed that the mind could
be divided into unconscious and conscious parts. He felt that
the unconscious mind was made up of layers. The personal unconscious
is the part of the unconscious mind in which is stored each person's
unique personal experiences and memories that may not be consciously
remembered. Jung believed that the contents of each person's personal
unconscious are organized in terms of complexes - clusters of
emotional unconscious thoughts. One may have a complex towards
their mother or towards their partner. Jung referred to the second
layer of unconsciousness as the collective unconscious. This level
contains memories and behavioural predisposition's
that all people have inherited from common ancestors in the distant
human past, providing us with essentially shared memories and
tendencies. People across space and time tend to interpret and
use experience in similar ways because of "archetypes"
- universal, inherited human tendencies to perceive and act in
certain ways. During analytic therapy, Jung may use certain archetypes
to explain a persons unconscious thoughts that in turn affect
their outward behaviour.
He believed that there are certain
archetypes that are important in people's lives. These archetypes
are as follows. The persona archetype is the part of
our personality that we show the world, the part that we are willing
to share with others. The shadow archetype is the darker
part of a person, the part that embraces what we view as frightening,
hateful and even evil about ourselves - the part of us that we
hide not only from others but also from ourselves. The anima is
the feminine side of a mans personality, which shows tenderness,
caring, compassion and warmth to others, yet which is more irrational
and based on emotions. The animus is the masculine side of a woman's
personality, the more rational and logical side of the woman.
Jung posited that men often try to hide their anima both from
others and from themselves because it goes against their idealized
image of what men should be. According to Jung, archetypes play
a role in our interpersonal relationships. For example, the relationship
between a man and a woman calls into play the archetypes in each
individual's collective unconscious. The anima helps
the man to understand his female companion, just as the animus
helps the woman to understand her male partners.
Jung felt that the "self"
- the whole of the personality, including both conscious and unconscious
elements - strives for unity among the opposing parts of the personality.
Jung distinguishes two differing
attitudes to life, two ways of reacting to circumstances which
he finds so widespread that he could describe them as typical.
The extraverted attitude, characterized
by an outward personality, an interest in events, in people and
things, a relationship with them, and a dependence on them. This
type is motivated by outside factors and greatly influenced by
the environment. The extraverted type is sociable and confident
in unfamiliar surroundings. He or she is generally on good terms
with the world, and even when disagreeing with it can still be
described as related to it, for instead of withdrawing (as the
opposite type tends to do) they prefer to argue and quarrel, or
try to reshape it according to their own pattern.
The introverted attitude, in contrast,
is one of withdrawal of the personality and is concentrated upon
personal factors, and their main influence is 'inner needs'. When
this attitude is habitual Jung speaks of an 'introverted type'.
This type lacks confidence in relation to people and things, tends
to be unsociable, and prefers reflection to activity.
In the West we prefer the extraverted
attitude, describing it in such favorable terms as outgoing, well-adjusted,
while the introverted attitude is dubbed self-centered and even
morbid. On the other hand, in the East, at least until recent
times, the introverted attitude has been the prevailing one. On
this basis one may explain the material and technical development
of the Western Hemisphere as contrasted with the material poverty
but greater spiritual development of the East.
Jung uses the term Analytical Psychology
to describe his own approach, which is not only a way of healing,
but also of developing the personality through the individuation
process. Since individuation is not the goal of all who seek
psychological help he varies his treatment according to the
age, state of development, and temperament of his patients ' and
does not neglect either the sexual urge or the will to power.