is striving inwardly to be competent at something and to reward
yourself inwardly. There exists a basic question of whether or
not extrinsic motivations (rewards provided by outward sources)
undermine intrinsic motivation (self-motivation). Research shows
that having extrinsic rewards for something that would naturally
be intrinsically motivated, decreases intrinsic motivation.
There are certain theories that
are used to determine the effect of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic
1) Cognitive Evaluative Theory:
This theory states that how rewards
are perceived by the athlete is important in determining whether
intrinsic motivation will increase or decrease. If someone is
feeling controlled by their rewards or if they feel that the reward
suggests that they are not very competent - this decreases intrinsic
motivation. Rewards that increase and provide positive feedback
increase intrinsic motivation. When competing - if success occurs
then intrinsic motivation increases, if failure occurs it decreases.
These ideas can apply to items such as athletic scholarships.
There are ways to increase intrinsic motivation (self-motivation):
* Give the tools needed for success.
* Give rewards based on performance.
* Use verbal and non-verbal praise
* Vary the content and sequence of practise drills.
* Involve the participants in decisions.
* Set realistic performance goals.
Flow is a certain kind of intrinsic
motivation that someone can feel. It occurs when someone feels
an overall, intrinsically motivated feeling when they are totally
involved in an activity and are on "auto pilot."
Certain elements are needed to achieve flow:
* A balance of levels of skills and of level of challenge
* Complete absorption in the activity
* Merging of action and awareness
* Total concentration
* Loss of self-consciousness
* A sense of control
* The absence of certain outward goals or rewards
* Effortless movement
* A motivation to perform
* Achieve optimal arousal before performing
* Appropriate focus maintenance.
* The use of pre-competitive and competitive plans and preparation
* The achievement of optimal physical preparation and readiness
* The exhibition of confidence and positive mental attitudes
* Positive team interaction
* Good feelings about performance
Some things that may prevent flow are:
* Not feeling physically prepared and ready
* Not feeling good
* External Stresses
* Unwanted crowd response
* Uncontrollable influences of the event
* A lack of confidence
* Negative thinking
* No control of mental state
* Thinking too much
* Worrying about what others are doing
* Frustration with team-mates effort
* Poor pre-competitive preparation
* Distraction before competition
* Interruption to preparation
* No goals set
* Lack of challenge
* Low arousal or motivation
* Not relaxed enough
* Too relaxed
* Poor team performance
* Not feeling part of a team
* Negative talk within the team
* Poor techniques
* Things not going as planned
* Stoppage in play
* Oppositions activity
* Negative refereeing decisions
* Inappropriate, negative, or lack of feedback
* Worrying about competition
* Loss of concentration
* Self doubt
* Putting too much pressure on yourself
Performance - PST
Aspects of PST