Feedback & Reinforcement
is the use of rewards and punishments that will work to either
encourage a certain action or decrease it in the future. This
is called classical conditioning. There are two ways
of using reinforcement - a positive approach and a negative approach.
The positive approach focuses on rewarding appropriate behaviour
- this increases the likelihood of this behaviour happening again.
The negative approach focuses on punishing undesirable behaviours
and should lead to a decrease of these behaviours in the future.
Most coaches and instructors combine positive and negative approaches,
and sport psychologists agree that the
predominant approach with physical activity should be a positive
one, as negative approaches instill fear in the participants.
How to Positively Reinforce Someone:
1. Choose positive reinforces (rewards)- i.e.
activities or items.
2. Time and schedule the reinforcers - if someone
is learning something new - continuous and immediate reward is
a good strategy. If you are attempting to reinforce an already
learned skill - then intermittent and immediate reinforcement
is a good strategy.
3. You should also shape or reinforce behaviours
that are close to the one you are trying to teach - if it is difficult.
4. Reward good performance, as well as good outcome
5. Reward effort.
6. Reward emotional and social skills.
7. Provide knowledge of the results (feedback
about the correctness or incorrectness of an action).
8. Provide motivational and instructional feedback.
Punishment (Negative Reinforcement):
Punishment can control and change
behaviour - but 80% - 90% of reinforcement should be positive.
There are several drawbacks to punishment:
* Can arouse fear of failure.
* Can act as a reinforcer.
* Can hinder learning skills
There are also several guidelines for using
* Be consistent by giving everyone the same type of punishment
for breaking similar rules.
* Punish the behaviour - not the person - tell the person it is
the behaviour that needs to change, not the person.
* Allow an athletes input in making up the punishment for breaking
* Do not use physical activity as a punishment.
* Make sure the punishment is not perceived as a reward or simply
* Impose punishment impersonally - do not berate or yell - simply
inform them of their punishment.
* Do not punish athletes for making errors while they are playing.
* Do not embarrass individuals in front of others.
* Use punishment sparingly, but enforce it when you use it.
Modifying Behaviour in Sport:
is the use of the basic principles of reinforcement in order to
change behaviour. These techniques have been successfully used
to modify sport and physical behaviours and have been developed
into Behaviour programs. Behaviour programs target behaviours,
record them, provide meaningful feedback and have tailored reward
Please click here for Intrinsic
Performance - PST
Aspects of PST